US CCS Projects in Development

United States
In the United States, there are proposed coal plants that would use carbon capture and storage either when they open or within a few years of opening.  Some of these projects are under construction, some have air permits, but some will likely be cancelled. 

 

Below is a list of these US projects.  In contrast to “FutureGen” which is designed as high capture and novel technology demonstration, these projects are “NowGens” that can be built as commercial scale with varying levels of CCS.  The list was prepared by Clean Air Task Force from public sources and often with information and text supplied by project developers.


Kentucky, Cash Creek, SNG plant plus co-located 715 MW (gross) NGCC plant 

 

 

 

 

 

Project Name

Project Type

Location

Size

Carbon Capture and Sequestration

Description

1

AEP, Mountaineer Plant
Post-Combustion Capture (PCC), retrofit
New Haven, West Virginia
30 MW slide slip from 1,300 MW 
Saline Formation
 One of the first fully integrated carbon dioxide capture and projects that has been in development with the US Department of Energy for over ten years. This project will use chilled ammonia technology for post-combustion capture.
 
 2
Southern Co, Plant Barry
 PCC Retrofit
 Mississippi
 25 MW slide slip from 2,567 MW
 Saline Formation
 

3

Tenaska Trailblazer Project 
PCC retrofit
Sweetwater, Texas
800 MW gross, 600 MW net output
Enhanced oil Recovery (EOR)
Teneska is adjacent to the world's largest enhanced oil recovery operations that utilize compressed CO2. This project will be a utility scale pulverized coal electric generation project that will capture and sequester up to 90 percent of its potential CO2 emissions or 5.75 million tons per year.  This may be the world's largest CCS project.

4

NRG Energy Company, Washington Parish Plant
PCC retrofit
 Southwest of Houston, TX
 60 MW
EOR 
This project will capture up to 90% of its CO2 emissions and will decrease its SOx and NOx emmisons as well. This project will demonstrate the feasibility of post-combustion capture technology being applied to existing coal plants. This project will capture 400,000 of CO2 a year. Sequestration is set to start in 2014 and a  project completion completion date is set for 2017. 

5

Cook Inlet Region Inc (CIRI)
Underground coal gasicifcation (UCG) and Intergrated Carbon Cycle  (IGCC) with CCS
Anchorage, AK
 
EOR
 

6

FutureGen
IGCC with CCS
Mattoon, IL
 275 MW
EOR Pipeline
 Slated to be one of the cleanest coal-fired plants in the world, FutureGen was originally set to start construction in 2009, but due to lack of funding and financial backing, construction has been delayed thru the first half of 2010. FutureGen will  function as a research facility for refining and strengthening clean coal technology and will become a touchstone for the next generation of clean coal plants. FutureGen will be one of the first clean coal plants to combine clean energy technologies like hydrogen production and CCS.

7

Denbury Midwest Pipeline
Carbon Dioxide Pipeline for EOR
Industrial sources in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee and Mississippi to Denbury’s existing pipeline infrastructure in the Gulf Coast.
Capable of transporting approximately 800 MMcf/d of carbon dioxide
CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Projects.
 A feasibility study identifies two potential pipeline routes. The 713 mile East route would connect Illinois and Indiana to Mississippi. The 781 mile West route would connect Illinois and Indiana through Louisiana. The total estimated cost of the Midwest Pipeline is approximately $1.2 to 1.4 billion, depending on the maximum pipeline length. If Denbury is able to contract for the requisite CO2 volumes, construction of the pipeline would begin in late 2010 or early 2011, with an expected operation date of mid-2013.

8

Cash Creek
(Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Natural Gas Combined Cycle Plant (NGCC)
Henderson, KY
715 MW gross and 515-565 MW net
Proposed EOR pipeline
This project would gasify 2.8 million tons a year of high sulfur, bituminous coal from Western Kentucky to make 36 billon cubic feet of methane annually.  Methane from these gasification plants is also called substitute natural gas (SNG).The final air permit for the project was issued on March 5, 2010. The final air permit has astonishingly low NOx, SO2 and mercury emissions. Assuming EOR, no more than 30 tons a year of SO2 would be emitted by the combined SNG/NGCC plant, 165 tons of NOx, and over 99+% of the mercury (CATF estimate) would be captured. Total CO2 releases from the combined SNG plant and NGCC plant would be about 2 million tons per year, or a 50% reduction relative to an uncontrolled coal-fired power plant of the same size.

 

 9

ConocoPhillips, IGCC, Sweeny, TX
IGCC 
Sweeny, TX
 680 MW
EOR and/or CCS

This project will capture 85% of its CO2 and will use ConocoPhillips's E-Gas technology that utilizes petcoke for electricity generation. The project is set to start in 2015 and is estimated to create 850 new jobs a year through 2015.

 10

Duke, Edwardsport, IGCC, IN
IGCC
Edwardsport IN
630 MW
The project is pursuing CCS
Approximately 40% complete.  The project is the largest coal-based IGCC plant. Edwardsport will incorporate advanced gasification pollutions controls for sulfur removal (Selexol) ,NOx (SCR) and mercury (carbon bed).  When the plant goes into operation in late 2012 or 2013, its emissions for these pollutants will be among the lowest in the world for a coal plant.

 11 

Future Fuels
IGCC with CCS
Good Spring, PA
 270 MW
 CCS
 This project has the potential to be the country's first viable carbon sequestration energy project and will utilize local anthracite. The unique location of Future Fuels will allow for almost no fuel transportation or electric power transmission that are typically associated with IGCC plants. The savings will offset some of the costs of CCS. Future Fuels may become one of the most of the most environmentally clean IGCC plants.

12

Faustina Hydrogen Products
 IGCC with CCS
St James Parish, LA
Will produce 4,000 tons of ammonia per day. 
 CCS. Denbury Resources has agreed to purchase almost all of the CO2.
 This project will be a petcoke gasification facility that will utilize petroleum coke and high sulfur coal to produce anhydrous ammonia for agriculture. The project will be located near a phosphate manufacturing plant that has already agreed to purchase much of the ammonia and sulfur produced by the project. Faustina is in negotiations with other major chemical companies to purchase the project's menthol output and the project is set to stary production sometime in 2010.

 13

Hydrogen Energy
IGCC with CCS
Kern County, CA
Will generate 400 gross MW of base-load low-carbon electricity
CCS. Over 2 million tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) is expected to be captured and stored in deep underground geological formations annually
Hydrogen Energy is proposing to build a hydrogen fuel production facility and power plant in Kern County.  It will be the nation’s first industrial-scale low-carbon power plant with carbon capture and sequestration. The proposed facility will use IGCC technology to manufacture hydrogen from petroleum coke (a by-product of the refining process) or blends of petroleum coke and coal, as needed.

14

Leucadia, Indiana Gasification LLC
SNG
 Rockport, IN
40 Bcf of SNG that will be sold to consumers in Indiana
EOR using proposed Denbury Pipeline
  A SNG project that will convert Illinois Basin coal into pipeline quality SNG.

15

Leucadia, Lake Charles Cogeneration LLC
SNG
Lake Charles, LA
Will annually produce 42 Bcf of SNG
EOR 
The project has filed for its environmental permits and has received its draft air permit from the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality.  The project will capture over 85% of its CO2 and is negotiating agreements to sell the CO2 for use in EOR operations in the Gulf Coast region.  The project began construction in 2009 and will achieve commercial operation early in 2013.The project will have a major economic impact on Louisiana, employing at its peak 3,000 construction jobs and over 200 highly skilled permanent technical jobs to operate the plant. The project has filed for its environmental permits and has received its draft air permit from the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality. 

16

Leucadia, Mississippi Gasification LLC
SNG
Moss Point, LA
Will utilize petroleum coke feedstock to produce over 40 Bcf of pipeline quality gas
EOR in the area.  
Product SNG from the project will be sold under long-term (30 year) contracts to utilities in the region. Carbon dioxide captured from the project (greater than 85% of that produced), will be sold under a long-term contract for use in existing enhanced oil recovery operations in the area.  The project expects to begin construction in 2011 and commence commercial operations in 2014. 

17

Peabody
SNG
Central City, KY
Will annually produce 50-75 Bcf of SNG
CCS

 

18

Powerholdings
SNG
Mt. Vernon, IL
60 BCF
Proposed Denbury EOR pipeline  
A draft air was issued in spring 2009 and awaiting action by Illinois EPA.  In early 2009, SB 1987 giving Powerholdings a preferential long-term price of $7.95/MMBtu for selling its natural gas to Illinois utilities if ambitious construction  schedules are met. With EOR, the emissions profile of this plant would rival natural gas.

19

Secure Energy
SNG
Decatur, IL
 

 

 This project is set to convert 1.4 million tons of high sulfur Illinois coal into pipeline quality natural gas per year and is in the process of finalizing grant agreements with the state of Illinois.

20

SEI
Fertilizer and Ammonia producer using coal derived syngas
American Falls, ID
2,000 ton per day ammonia producer using coal derived syngas
EOR would result in capture and storage of greater than 93% of the Project's CO2 emissions
The project will use coal to produce ammonia, urea, and UAN, which will be sold into the regional market.  There are no other significant nitrogen based fertilizer producers in the Pacific Northwest. The company intends to supply CO2 to the oil fields in Wyoming.  A  final air permit was issued for the facility, but has been appealed by national and state environmental groups.

21

Summit
IGCC
Odessa, TX
345 MW gross output and 170 MW net
EOR and sequestration at Permian Basin
The project’s design incorporates several proven technologies, including multiple 500+ MWTh Siemens gasifiers.  The power island is a standard combination of a combustion turbine and a steam turbine in combined cycle operation and is nearly identical to a natural gas combined cycle power island. The project is designed to achieve a carbon capture rate that will assure that CO2 emissions per MWh of power produced will be significantly less than those of a typical combined cycle natural gas-fired power plant.  The capture rate also will readily meet the leading-edge CO2 emissions standards for new fossil fueled power plants established by the States of California and Washington.

22

Tenaska  Project 
SNG and Electricity
 Taylorville, IL
530 MW net output
EOR
This is a "hybrid IGCC" project that will manufacture pipeline quality substitute natural gas (SNG) that will be used to fuel a conventional GE 7FA combined-cycle combustion turbinepower block. The amount of SNG production will exceed the requirements of the power block even when both gas turbines are operating, with the excess SNG being sold into the natural gas market.  Additional SNG sales can be made by idling one of the two gas turbines of the power block at times when natural gas is a more valuable commodity than electric energy.The Project will receive state and local tax incentives and sales of CO2 into the EOR markets may offset part of the cost of CO2 capture, treatment, compression, and delivery. A significant advantage of the hybrid IGCC design is that at least 50% of the CO2 is separated as a normal part of the process of making SNG, so there is no significant additional capital or operating cost or technical risk associated with separating the percentage of CO2 for sequestration required under applicable Illinois law. The estimated cost of the TEC, including interest during construction, is $3.5 billion. The costs are detailed in a Facility Cost Report found at the Illinois Commerce Commission website.

23

Southern Co. Kemper County Plant
IGCC
Kemper County, MS
532 MW
EOR
The facility would convert locally mined lignite coal into syngas through two TRIG lignite gasifiers. The draft air permit lists maximum potential emissions of 2089.6 tons/year of  NOx and 669.7 tons/year of SOx. Up to 67% of CO2 emissions will be captured, with the CO2 then sold for commercial use and EOR. A 61 mile-long pipeline would be constructed to transport the CO2 from the plant site to the EOR site.